The thermostat in a car is responsible for maintaining a proper and constant engine temperature, which needs to work with a coolant temperature of approximately 90 °. The thermostat is a control element that opens or closes a circuit depending on the temperature. It is vitally important in the engine; it is responsible for maintaining the temperature of the engine properly and consistently. The thermostat controls the passage of the coolant from the radiator to the engine so that it reaches its ideal temperature operation in the shortest possible time, in this way can save fuel.
The spring expands when the coolant temperature increases; when the low temperature the spring contracts, this way the opening and closing necessary to control the flow of the refrigerant takes place.
Common failures in the thermostat
The faults that can occur in the thermostat are that it stays stuck and can be open or closed, the two faults can cause problems. The open thermostat: when the thermostat stays open the engine runs cold, it does not store the coolant in the engine to keep it and reach its ideal operating temperature. When the thermostat stays open, an excessive increase in fuel consumption is generated.
The closed thermostat: when the thermostat gets stuck in its closed position the motor overheats because it is not allowed the entry of refrigerant to lower the operating temperature in the motor. When the thermostat stays closed the motor overheats and can cause damage to the cylinder head and cylinder head gasket and can cause engine damage due to overheating.
Rust or dirt: happens when the engine is given an inadequate formulation of the coolant; the proportion must be 60% of refrigerant per 40% of water, if the mixture is improperly made or only water is applied, rust and dirt are produced in the thermostat, causing it to seize up.
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Damage caused by overheating of an engine
The temperature with which the engine works is a factor that all drivers must be aware of when driving day after day; this detail is extremely important because overheating of it can cause serious damage to the engine starting with the rupture of the head gasket, the deformation of the face of the head, the deformation of the cylinders, an important wear on the rings, and depending on what temperature is reached, there may be problems such as serious damage to the cylinder head, in addition to the possibility of finding significant damage to the crankshaft elbows on connecting rod and bank.
This is such a delicate point because, sometimes after an overheating of the engine, we can begin to experience problems with engine power and low or moderate oil consumption. The engine must work at an optimum temperature for its proper functioning, it must not be a very low temperature because we lose optimization of the mixture, which increases the polluting emissions and increases the fuel consumption.
The cooling system of the engine is composed of several elements or devices that help to maintain the temperature usually between 84C and 96C degrees, such as the radiator, water pump, thermostat, electric fans a good engine coolant that flows go through a circuit from the engine block around the cylinders extracting the heat which is diminished by the electric fan by means of a thermo-contact or in cars with recent technology through the engine or computer control module.
The overheating of an engine is usually a symptom that tells us something happened and this is where the diagnosis comes in search of the problem. As it is known the cylinders are surrounded by a refrigeration circuit, one of lubrication and also the place where we find the compression chamber and these three cannot be mixed or joined together, this is where the gasket of the cylinder head comes in, as 1957 nash metropolitan gives independence to each circuit.
Damage to this package means that the refrigerant can mix with the oil or enter the compression chamber. If the refrigerant escapes to the lubrication circuit it will mix with the oil and visually we will see the white oil. If the refrigerant leaks into the compression chamber you will feel a considerable loss of power and visually you will see white smoke from the engine exhaust as excess steam, something like condensation on cold mornings.
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